Title: Antimicrobial Effects of Caribbean Herbal Extracts on Oral Biofilm Forming Organisms
Ravi Teja Chitturi (Presenter)
The University of the West Indies
Chandrashekhar Unakal, The University of the West Indies
Haytham Al-Bayaty, The University of the West Indies
Duraisamy Saravanakumar, The University of the West Indies
Objectives: Oral biofilm formation is a chief etiological factor for periodontal diseases. Many studies are trying to find a chemical product that can prevent bio film formation and at the same time be biocompatible to the tissues. Herbal preparations are one such potential products that has poorly been investigated. The micro-organisms that are important in the formation of Biofilm are Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundi, Streptococuss oralis and Prevotella intermedia. The objective of this cohort study was to investigate the antimicrobial property of six herbs available in Caribbean Region (Trinidad &Tobago) against these organisms. The importance of this study is that identification of biologically effective plant extracts can result in development of tooth pastes and mouth rinses that could be cheap, effective and biocompatible.
Methods: The extracts from the leaves of Ocmium tenuiflorum, Plectranthus ambonicus, Psidium guajava, Azadirchata indica and Anacardium occidentale were prepared by dissolving them in water/ethanol. The extracts from the rhizome of Curcuma longa was also prepared similarly. The antimicrobial activity of these six herbal extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundi, Streptococcus oralis and Prevotella intermedia and compared with chlorhexidine.
Results: The six herbal extracts showed variable antimicrobial effect. The zone of inhibiton has been shown in Table 1. Ocmium tenuiflorum, Azadirchata indica and Curcuma longa were found to have highest inhibitory activity against all the four pathogens (Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Actinomyces naeslundi, and Prevotella intermedia)
Conclusions: The extracts of three out of the six herbs which were used in this study have shown antimicrobial effect which may indicate that they are potential antimicrobial agents. Further analysis of the extracts by derivation of pure compounds is required as it might lead to the development of a cost effective and biologically safe medicine to use against microroganisms in the biofilms.