Title: Effect of Titanium Dioxide-Containing Toothbrush on Streptococcus mutans Biofilm
Molly Sanders (Presenter)
Indiana University School of Dentistry
Richard Gregory, Indiana University
Objectives: The objective was to examine the effectiveness of the titanium dioxide in the Ion5 toothbrush on S. mutans biofilm. It was hypothesized that titanium dioxide in the Ion5 toothbrush would reduce S. mutans biofilm formation.
Methods: Effects were assessed using viability and crystal violet staining. Tryptic soy broth supplemented with 1% sucrose (TSBS) was added to 6 well plates, inoculated with an overnight culture of S. mutans and incubated overnight. The wells were rinsed and exposed to the toothbrush for 2, 4, 6 min or no treatment. The wells were rinsed, scraped to remove biofilm and plated onto blood agar plates to determine colony forming units. For crystal violet staining, TSBS inoculated with S. mutans in 96-well microtiter plates was incubated, planktonic bacteria were removed and the wells rinsed. Biofilm was treated with the toothbrush for 0, 30, 120, 240 and 360 sec. Biofilm was washed, stained with crystal violet, the stain extracted from the biofilm with 2-propanol and measured at 490 nm. Each experiment was replicated three times. Data was log transformed and analyzed by ANOVA to identify significant effects of exposure time.
Results: Exposure time had a significant effect on bacterial counts (p=0.0323). Bacterial counts after 6 min of exposure were significantly lower than both 2 min and no treatment control (p = 0.0304 and p=0.0056, respectively). In addition, as exposure time increased the amount of remaining biofilm was statistically lower than the no treatment control.
Conclusions: This study concludes that the Ion5 toothbrush kills established S. mutans biofilm, and is able to dislodge established S. mutans biofilm.