Title: Sleep Disturbances and Upper Airway Size Among Children 3-18 Years
Salam Alsadiq (Presenter)
Jayapriyaa Shanmugham, Boston University
Osama Alsulaiman, Boston University
Yasmine Alayyoubi, Boston University
Melih Motro, Boston University
Goli Parsi, Boston University
Athanasios Zavras, Boston University
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper airway size and sleep disturbances among children using Acoustic Pharyngometry (AP) and Rhinometry (AR).
Methods: Healthy children between the ages 3-18 years were screened for sleep disturbances in the Pediatric Oral Health Center at Boston University Department of Pediatric Dentistry. Based on the survey responses the participants were categorized as those with sleep disturbances (cases = 102) versus those without sleep disturbances (controls = 169). Detailed study questionnaire that included evaluation of sleep patterns was used to collect data and Eccovision AP and AR (Hood Laboratories, Pembroke, MA) was used to clinically measure upper airway volume and size. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate significant differences in upper airway measurements between cases and controls.
Results: Overall the mean age of the cases was 10 years with the majority of the cases being female (43.5%) and African-American (42%). A significantly higher proportion of the cases were overweight (64%; p = 0.02). When evaluating the differences in upper airway measurements between cases and controls using AP and AR there were no significant differences. However in the multivariate regression analyses when adjusting for age, gender, race and ethnicity the pharyngeal cross-sectional area was significantly lower (-0.2 cm2) among children with sleep disturbances (p <0.05). Similarly significant differences in Rhinometry volume (p <0.05) and air resistance (p = 0.03) was observed among children with sleep disturbances when compared to children without sleep disturbances.
Conclusions: Our results confirm that upper airway measurements are significantly different among children with sleep disturbances even when adjusting for age, gender, race and ethnicity. Children who are overweight are more likely to have sleep-related problems. Our findings suggest that the use of simple screening tools can be effective in identifying sleep-related problems among children.